Lea Marshes   1970s


In 2012 various botanical surveys of Lea Marshes were compared.
To view this comparison table click this link.
Agrostemma githago

Apple tree on Lea
Walthamstow/Leyton Marshes: Flora   

A comprehensive list of all the species recorded (plus some later additions mainly from Leyton).
Scientific nameEnglish nameStatus at Walthamstow
Equisetum arvenseCommon HorsetailCommon on dry banks.1970s E17 list
Equisetum palustreMarsh HorsetailCommon on sedge peat.1970s E17 list
Equisetum x litoraleHybrid HorsetailCritical studies in 1980 revealed this to be the commonest Horsetail towards the margins of each meadow. It must have arisen with the railway constructions over a century ago, and continues to penetrate the grassland and sedge. It is E. arvense x limosum.1970s E17 list
Pteridium aquilinumBrackenVery occasional young plants only on walls.1970s E17 list
Dryopteris filix-masMale fernAs above.1970s E17 list
Ophioglossum vulgatumAdders Tongue FernFirst recorded over 130 years ago from Coppermill to Lea Bridge Road. Rediscovered in 1980, sparingly among grass near Coppermill Lane, but plentiful among tall sedge on South Marsh. An important ancient meadow species.1970s E17 list
Rununculus acrisMeadow Buttercup
Common and variable1970s E17 list
Ranunculus repensCreeping ButtercupRare on damp ground.1970s E17 list
Ranunculus sceleratusCelery-leaved ButtercupLocally common on bare or damp ground in hollows.1970s E17 list
Ranunculus ficaria

Lesser Celandine
Common in Spring.1970s E17 list
Family: Ranunculaceae
Clematis vitalba

Old Man's Beard/Traveller's Joy
Found by the canal side, near the railway arches in 2014.2014
Family: Ranunculaceae
Ranunculus pseudofluitansWater ButtercupLocal in River Lea only.1970s E17 list
Nuphar luteaYellow Water LilyCoppermill Stream only (and reservoirs).1970s E17 list
Ceratophyllum demersumHornwortGrows with above. Formerly in small pond.1970s E17 list
Papaver rhoeasCorn Poppy
Occasional casual.1970s E17 list
Papaver dubiumLong-headed PoppyScarce casual.1970s E17 list
Papaver somniferumOpium PoppyOccasional casual - showy.1970s E17 list
Brassica napusRape /Wild Turnip Abundant and spectacular in Spring over much of area.1970s E17 list
Brassica rapaWild TurnipOccasional with above. Less common.1970s E17 list
Brassica nigraBlack MustardRare. Mostly near Lea Bridge Road and Leyton Marsh.1970s E17 list
Brassica junceaChinese MustardScarce casual.1970s E17 list
Hirschfeldia incanaHoary MustardScarce casual.1970s E17 list
Sinapis arvensisCharlockOccasional on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Diplotaxis muralisStinkweed Rare casual.1970s E17 list
Diplotaxis tenuifoliaWall RocketA few scattered well established clumps.1970s E17 list
Lepidium ruderaleNarrow-leaved PepperwortScarce casual.1970s E17 list
Lepidium sativumGarden Cress Scarce casual on paths. 1970s E17 list
Coronopus squamatusSwine's Cress Occasional.1970s E17 list
Coronopus didymusLesser Swine's CressOccasional. 1970s E17 list
Cardaria draba/ Lepidum drabaHoary Cress
Several well established patches on verges. 1970s E17 list
Capsella bursa-pastorisShepherd's PurseVery common on bare ground and paths. Variable.1970s E17 list
Armoracia rusticanaHorseradishLocally plentiful, on verges and banks.1970s E17 list
Cardamine pratensis Lady's Smock Several tall clumps in Triangle only.1970s E17 list
Cardamine hirsuta Common Bittercress Occasional.1970s E17 list
Barbarea vulgarisWintercressThinly scattered. Some plants have spreading recurved pods and are referrable to the rare variety or subspecies arcuata.1970s E17 list
Rorippa palustris

Marsh Yellow Cress
Common on bare or damp ground.1970s E17 list
Family: Brassicaceae
Rorippa islandica

Northern Yellow-Cress Yet to be identified but mentioned in the original list as a different name, or variant, for Rorippa palustris. Recent sources have described the two as separate types.1970s E17 list
Rorippa amphibiaGreater Yellow Cress Scarce in wet ground and sedge swamp.1970s E17 list
Nasturtium officinale

Water Cress
Extinct by bomb crater pond. Survives by Coppermill Stream.1970s E17 list
Erysimum cheiranthoidesTreacle Mustard Small quantity on disturbed ground near Marina.1970s E17 list
Alliaria petiolataJack-by-the-Hedge Quite plentiful alongside Marina. Rare elsewhere.1970s E17 list
Sisymbrium altissimumTumbling Mustard Occasional on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Sisymbrium orientaleEastern Mustard Rare casual on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Sisyinbrium officinale

Hedge Mustard
Common on paths and verges.1970s E17 list
Family: Brassicaceae
Sisymbrium officinale var leiocarpunA glabrous variety of the above. 1970s E17 list
Reseda luteolaWeldScarce and usually on disturbed ground only.1970s E17 list
Hypericum perforatumCommon St John's Wort
Scarce on railway banks.1970s E17 list
Ilex aquifolium

Found in a hedge by friends path. 2015
Hypericum tetrapterum

Square-stalked St. John's-wort
Damp places, marshes, pond and river margins.2007
Family: Hypericaceae
Viburnum opulus

Guelder Rose
Found on Sustrans in 2014.2014
Family: Adoxaceae
Silene vulgaris

Bladder Campion
Local; on railway banks.1970s E17 list
Family: Pink Caryophyllaceae
Silene dioica

Red Campion
Common on waysides. 1970s E17 list
Family: Caryophyllaceae
Silene latifolia

White Campion
Scattered plants mostly near Coppermill.1970s E17 list
Family: Caryophyllaceae
Silene x hampeana

Hybrid Pink Campion
As above. Regularly seen.1970s E17 list
Family: Caryophyllaceae
Silene x hampeana

Unusually red Hybrid Pink Campion
On Coppermill Field..2014
Family: Caryophyllaceae
Saponaria officinalis SoapwortCoppermill railway bank only. Plentiful.1970s E17 list
Cerastium holosteoides / Cerastium fontanumCommon Mouse-earFound in the South Marsh1970s E17 list
Cerastium glomeratum Stocky Mouse-earOccasional on bare ground.1970s E17 list
Myosoton aquaticumWater ChickweedVery fine stands of this recently. Now much decreased, but survives.1970s E17 list
Stellaria media

Common Chickweed
Very common. Edible.1970s E17 list
Family: Caryophyllaceae
Sagina apetalaAnnual Pearlwort Quite common on bare dry gravelly ground.1970s E17 list
Sagina procumbensMossy Pearlwort Common on bare but harder and damper ground.1970s E17 list
Chenopodium polyspermum Many-seeded Goosefoot Common on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Chenopodium album Fat Hen
Common. Edible.1970s E17 list
Chenopodium ficifolium Fig-leaved GoosefootQuite common.1970s E17 list
Chenopodium rubrumRed GoosefootOccasional on damp ground.1970s E17 list
Beta vulgaris BeetrootAn occasional casual, rarely persisting.1970s E17 list
Atriplex patula OracheCommon.1970s E17 list
Atriplex prostrataHalberd-leaved (Spear-leaved) Orache
Commoner than the above esp. on sedge peat and less dependent on continually disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Malva sylvestrisCommon Mallow
Quite common and pretty on dry verges.1970s E17 list
English nameScientific nameStatus at Walthamstow
Malva neglecta Small Mallow Very scarce.1970s E17 list
Geranium molle

Dovesfoot Cranesbill
Occasional in grassland.1970s E17 list
Geranium pyrenaicum Pyrenean Cranesbill Occasional in grassland.1970s E17 list
Geranium dissectum

Cut-leaved Cranesbill
Quite frequent on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list.
Impatiens capensisOrange Balsam
Still abundant along Coppermill Stream and most attractive in high Summer.1970s E17 list
Impatiens glanduliferaHimalayan Balsam
Surprisingly much more scarce than the last species. Abundant in Hackney Marsh.1970s E17 list
Acer pseudoplatanus Sycamore
Self-sown locally, not to be encouraged.1970s E17 list
Medicago arabica

Spotted Medick, Sotted Burclover or Heart Clover.
Common on Copperfield Meadow. 2014
Medicago lupulina

Black Medick
Frequent on disturbed ground. Occasional. 1970s E17 list
Medicago sativa

Sand Lucerne/ Alfalfa
Very valuable fodder plant. 1970s E17 list
Melilotus officinalis Common MelilotOccasional on disturbed ground.,1970s E17 list
Melilotus albus White MelilotRare and sporadic.1970s E17 list
Trifolium pratense Red Clover
Very common and variable.1970s E17 list
Trifolium medium Zigzag CloverRare.1970s E17 list
Trifolium repens

White Clover
Very common in dry turf.1970s E17 list
Trifolium campestre Hop TrefoilOccasional.1970s E17 list
Trifolium dubium

Lesser Hop Trefoil
Frequent on stony banks.1970s E17 list
Lotus corniculatus

Bird's Foot Trefoil
Frequent in grassland.1970s E17 list
Subfamily: Faboideae
Galega officinalis

Goat's rue, French lilac, Italian fitch or professor-weed
Seems to have invaded Walthamstow Marsh, but a fantastic looking plant that the cows will probably like. 2012
Colutea arborescens

Bladder Senna
A few self-sown shrubs on railway banks and one on North Marsh.1970s E17 list
Vicia hirsuta

Hairy Vetch
Sparingly on dry banks.1970s E17 list
Vicia cracca

Tufted Vetch
Locally frequent and colourful in grass.1970s E17 list
Vicia villosa subsp. villosa

Fodder Vetch
Discovered on Coppermill Field 2014.2014
Lathyrus pratensisMeadow Vetchling Locally frequent in grassland.1970s E17 list
Lathyrus latifolius

Garden Everlasting Pea
On railway bank, established at Coppermill only. Very colourful.1970s E17 list
Filipendula ulmaria

Fine ancient stands in grassland in all meadows. 1970s E17 list
Family: Rosaceae
Sanguisorba minor

Salad Burnet
Found in Coppermill Field in 2014. 2014
Family: Rosaceae
Rubus species

Several thickets on drier ground and railway banks. 1970s E17 list
Family: Rosaceae
Potentilla reptans

Common in dry grassland.1970s E17 list
Family: Rosaceae
Potentilla anserina SilverweedOnly locally common and most attractive.1970s E17 list
Rosa canina

Dog Rose
Very scarce on dry ground.1970s E17 list
Family: Rosaceae
Geum urbanum

Wood Avens
Beside the path close to the riding stables, Leyton Marsh.2012
Family: Rosaceae
Rosa multifloraPolyantha Long established near Coppermill Lane.1970s E17 list
Prunus spinosaRose Blackthorn (Sloe)
One or two bushes on railway banks.1970s E17 list
Crataegus monogyna

A few scattered mature shrubs in grass.1970s E17 list
Family: Rosaceae
Lythrum salicaria

Purple Loosestrife
Fine patches in marsh near Coppermill. 1970s E17 list
Family: Lythraceae
Chamerion angustifolium

Rosebay Willowherb
Common in drier grassland, forming large patches. 1970s E17 list
Family: Onagraceae
Epilobium hirsutum Great Hairy Willowherb
Common, forming large patches on wetter ground. 1970s E17 list
Epilobium montanum Broad-leaved Willowherb Very rare.1970s E17 list
Epilobium adenocaulonAmerican Willowherb Common on more open and disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Epilobium obscurumShort-fruited WillowherbOf doubtful occurrence.1970s E17 list
Epilobium tetragonumSquare-stemmed WillowherbOccasional. The hybrids E. Tetragonum x adenocaulon and E. hirsutum x adenocaulon have occurred but are impermanent.1970s E17 list
Myriophyllum spicatum Water MilfoilRare. Coppermill Stream. Formerly bomb crater. 1970s E17 list
Callitriche obtusangula Water StarwortGrows with above at Coppermill in quantity. 1970s E17 list
Hedera helixIvy
Very rare.1970s E17 list
Anthriscus sylvestris

Cow Parsley
Abundant and showy in Spring everywhere. 1970s E17 list
Family: Apiaceae
Conium maculatum HemlockLocal, mostly alongside River Lea.1970s E17 list
Apium graveolens var dulce Cultivated CeleryCasual.1970s E17 list
Apium nodiflorum Fool's Watercress
Scarce by bomb crater pond and Coppermill.1970s E17 list
Pimpinella saxifraga Burnet Saxifrage
Scarce on dry railway banks especially by Triangle.1970s E17 list
Berula erectaLesser Water ParsnipRare near Coppermill. A nice species, not always seen.1970s E17 list
Oenanthe crocataHemlock Water Dropwort Frequent by River Lea and Coppermill Stream. 1970s E17 list
Oenanthe fistulosaTubular Water Dropwort Very rare in Outer Marsh only. Special. 1970s E17 list
Aethusa cynapium Fool's ParsleyOccasional on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Foeniculum vulgare FennelRare, perhaps not permanent.1970s E17 list
Angelica sylvestris

Wild Angelica
Quite frequent in reed grassland.1970s E17 list
Family: Apiaceae
Angelica archangelica Garden Angelica Not yet arrived. Abundant by Hackney Marsh.1970s E17 list
Pastinaca sativaWild ParsnipOccasional on dry verges.1970s E17 list
Heracleum sphondylium

Very common everywhere.1970s E17 list
Family: Apiaceae
Heracleum mantegazzianum

Giant Hogweed
Newly appeared on South Marsh. Increasing.1970s E17 list
Heracleum sphondylium x mantegazzianumHybrid HogweedOne fine plant detected in 1980.1970s E17 list
Daucus carotaCarrotCasual.1970s E17 list
Bryonia dioicaWhite Bryony
Scarce on dry ground.1970s E17 list
Mercurialis annua Annual MercuryCommon on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Euphorbia peplus Petty SpurgeCommon on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Euphorbia helioscopia Sun SpurgeOccasionally with above.1970s E17 list
Euphorbia x pseudovirgataTwiggy SpurgeAn alien hybrid near Lea Bridge Road; also on reservoirs.1970s E17 list
Polygonum aviculare

Common.1970s E17 list
Family: Polygonaceae
Polygonum arenastrum Equal-leaved Knotgrass Common.1970s E17 list
Polygonum persicaria PersicariaCommon.1970s E17 list
Polygonum lapathifoliumPale PersicariaFairly common.1970s E17 list
Polygonum nodosum Knotted PersicariaDecreasing, now scarce.1970s E17 list
Persicaria maculosa

Found on North Marsh in 2014.2014
Family: Polygonaceae
Polygonum hydropiper Water PepperCommon in wet ground.1970s E17 list
Polygonum convolvulus Black BindweedOccasional on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Polygonum amphibium Water BistortTerrestrial form common.1970s E17 list
Polygonum cuspidatumJapanese KnotweedOccasional dense thickets by River Lea and Leyton Marsh.1970s E17 list
Vinca major

Bigleaf periwinkle, large periwinkle, greater periwinkle and blue periwinkle.
Spotted in woody land behind a fence on the south side of Lea Bridge Road (between the Sustrans and the Waterworks Centre) .2014
Spotted in woody land behind a fence on the south side of Lea Bridge Road (between the Sustrans and the Waterworks Centre) .2014
subfamily Amaryllidoideae


The species of Rumex, or Dock, in the Lea Valley forms one of the most interesting groups of plants to be found anywhere in the London area, or even Britain.

Man's treatment of the land in the past has led to a diversity of native species and also to the introduction of several alien species, which now are settling into the stabilising habitats. The process of settling in has led to hybridisation at sterile, partly fertile, and completely fertile levels.

Two newly arisen Docks on Walthamstow Marshes are now new to science and it is very much to be hoped that these and their habitats will not be destroyed.

A third hybrid new to science, found near Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire, may now have gone. This was R. conglomeratus x R. obtusifolius ssp sylvestris.

Scientific nameEnglish nameStatus at Walthamstow
Rumex acetosaCommon Sorrel
Quite common in drier grassland.1970s E17 list
Rumex acetosellaSheep's Sorrel Quite common on railway banks.1970s E17 list
Rumex hydrolapathumGreat Water Dock Local near Coppermill Stream and elsewhere.1970s E17 list
Rumex cristatusGreek Dock Local but increasing; a huge spectacular species.1970s E17 list
Rumex crispus

Curled Dock
Quite common. Variable.1970s E17 list
Family: Polygonaceae
Rumex obtusifoliusBroad-leaved DockCommon. Variable.1970s E17 list
Rumex obtusifolius, subspecies sylvestrisAn alien relative of the last. Scarce.1970s E17 list
Rumex palustrisMarsh DockVery rare. Formerly by bomb crater but now only a few scattered plants by Coppermill Stream.1970s E17 list
Rumex conglomeratus Clustered DockVery common.1970s E17 list
Rumex sanguineus var viridis Wood DockRefound in small quantity on North Marsh in 1979.1970s E17 list
Rumex maritimusGolden DockFormerly by reservoirs only. Extinct.1970s E17 list
The Dock Hybrids1970s E17 list
The following hybrids have been recorded from this area:1970s E17 list
R. cristatus x obtusifoliusR. conglomeratus x crispus1970s E17 list
R. cristatus x crispusR. obtusifolius x crispus1970s E17 list
R. palustris x crispusR. obtusifolius x subspecies sylvestris1970s E17 list
R. palustris x conglomeratus  1970s E17 list

Of these, the two following are new to science:

R. obtusifolius x subspecies sylvestris : This interbreeding of the native and the alien forms was observed for the first time in 1974 and confirmed by J E Lousley, an authority on the Docks, to whom I showed the plants at Walthamstow. These hybrids are fertile and, if left undisturbed, will eventually stabilise a new intermediate form peculiar to this area.

R. obtusifolius x cristatus : This remarkable plant was first discovered by me at Tottenham Hale, in 1974, where it just hangs on despite River Lea bank improvements. It was confirmed and named Rumex x lousleyi in honour of Mr J E Lousley who died in January 1975. A new plant has arisen in company with the parents by the River Lea on the North Marsh and may be the only other plant of this hybrid anywhere in existence in the world at this present time. It appears to be partly fertile but seed viability remains unproven as yet.

Further examples of the hybrids listed above and new combinations which have not yet been observed are likely to arise, in company with their parents, in grassland at Walthamstow, in future years, if the locality is allowed to remain in its present favourable condition for this to happen. In this family, and in this locality, we are observing the process of evolution in our own time.

Scientific nameEnglish nameStatus at Walthamsto w
Urtica dioica

Stinging Nettle
Common. A vital plant for several butterfly species. 1970s E17 list
Family: Urticaceae
Urtica urens Small Nettle Occasional on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Humulus lupulusWild Hop
Common in tall marsh vegetation. Certainly native. 1970s E17 list
Betula pendulaSilver Birch A few scattered examples on dry banks.1970s E17 Nettle
Prunus cerasus

Dwarf Cherry
Found in the triangle behind the Dell.2015
Acer campestre

Field maple
Part of a planting near the car park on Coppermill Field. 2015
Acer platanoides

Norwegian Maple
One of the planted trees screening Coppermill Car Park from view.2015
Alnus glutinosaAlder
A few fine trees near Coppermill (within the reservoirs area) and isolated examples near the Marina and Horseshoe Bridge.1970s E17 list
Alnus cordata

Italian Alder
Large tree by the bench at the south of Coppermill field.2015
Cornus sanguinea

Edge of Coppermill Field..2014
Family: Cornaceae
Aesculus x carnea

Red Horse Chestnut
Beside the path close to the riding stables, Leyton Marsh.2012
Family: Sapindaceae
Aesculus hippocastanum

Horse Chestnut
Beside the path close to the riding stables, Leyton Marsh.2012
Family: Sapindaceae
Populus x canadensisBlack Italian Poplar
A fine planted row by Leyton Marsh. 1970s E17 list
Populus nigra x deltoides = P. x canadensisHybrid Black Poplar
This is the huge tree at the centre of the Oxbow island. 2014
Salix fragilisCrack Willow
Very fine ancient group by Marina.1970s E17 list
Salix alba

White Willow
Fine tree is growing at the edge of the Dell.2014
Salix alba x babylonica = S. x sepulcralis)

Weeping Willow
Coppermill Field.2014
Salix purpureaPurple OsierVery interesting small colony by Coppermill railway bridge and in Stream.1970s E17 list
Salix viminalisCommon Osier Two shrubs near the Marina.1970s E17 list
Salix capreaPussy (or Goat) Willow
Numerous shrubs near the Marina.1970s E17 list
Salix caprea x viminalisHybrid SallowTwo shrubs near the Marina.1970s E17 list
Salix caprea x atrocinereaHybrid SallowOne superb example only near the Marina.1970s E17 list
Salix atrocinereaCommon Sallow Common near the Marina. Variable.1970s E17 list
Salix atrocinerea x viminalisHybrid SallowOne shrub near the Marina. Recorded at Lea Bridge Road 100 years ago, and of particular interest.1970s E17 list
Salix calodendron This triple hybrid, Salix viminalis x caprea x atrocinerea, is now represented only by a single surviving tree between the Marina and Coppermill railway bridge and is in urgent need of protection. It is known only in one or two other localities in the London area. The main stock of this species was destroyed by building in 1972.1970s E17 list
Corylus avellana

Found in the Dell.2015
Lysimachia vulgaris

Yellow Loosestrife
Very rare in North Marsh, not seen recently. 1970s E17 list
Family: Myrsinaceae
Lysimachia punctataDotted Loosestrife Very rare alien, perhaps gone.1970s E17 list
Anagallis arvensis

Scarlet Pimpernel
Occasional on disturbed ground,1970s E17 list
Family: Primulaceae
Buddleja davidiiBuddleia
Very occasional seedlings in area in 1970s, common by 2015.1970s E17 list
Fraxinus excelsiorAsh
One or two on railway banks only. 1970s E17 list
Ligustrum ovalifoliumJapanese PrivetOne or two planted relics in area.1970s E17 list
Symphytum officinale

Common Comfrey
Rather scarce. White flowers. On original sedge swamp.1970s E17 list
Family: Boraginaceae
Symphytum x uplandicum

Russian Comfrey (hybrid)
Abundant. Purple-blue flowers. On recently disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Family: Boraginaceae
Myosotis scorpioidesWater Forget-me-not Local near Coppermill only. 1970s E17 list
Convolvulus arvensis

Field Bindweed
Common on dry grassy banks. 1970s E17 list
Family: Convolvulaceae
Calystegia sepium

Hedge Bindweed
Common in tall marshy vegetation. 1970s E17 list
Family: Convolvulaceae
Calystegia silvatica

Greater Bindweed
Common on dry banks.1970s E17 list
Family: Convolvulaceae
Calystegia silvatica x sepiumHybrid Bindweed Fairly common.1970s E17 list
Lycium barbarumDuke of Argyll Established on Coppermill railway bank. 1970s E17 list
Atropa belladonna Deadly Nightshade 1970s E17 list
Solanum nigrum

Black Nightshade
Found both in the Dell and Waterworks NR. This one was in the Waterworks.2014
Solanum dulcamara

Woody Nightshade
Frequent in marshy vegetation.1970s E17 list
Family: Solanaceae
Antirrhinum majus SnapdragonCasual on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Linaria vulgaris

Yellow Toadflax
Common. Grassland and railway banks.1970s E17 list
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Linaria purpurea Purple Toadflax Occasional casual. Attractive.1970s E17 list
Chaenorhinum minusSmall Toadflax Coppermill. Abundant by railway.1970s E17 list
Mimulus guttatusMonkey Flower Recently found by Marina.1970s E17 list
Scrophularia aquaticaWater Figwort Occasional in marshland.1970s E17 list
Veronica persicaBuxbaum's Speedwell Occasional on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Veronica arvensisWall Speedwell Occasional in short turf.1970s E17 list
Veronica hederifoliaIvy-leaved Speedwell Occasional on loose soil.1970s E17 list
Veronica catenataPink Water Speedwell
Very notable for this area. Scarce.1970s E17 list
Veronica beccabungaBrooklimeRare in marsh by Coppermill Stream only.1970s E17 list
Mentha spicataSpearmintRarely established in rough grassland.1970s E17 list
Mentha aquatica

Water Mint
Fairly plentiful. Coppermill etc.

1970s E17 list
Family: Lamiaceae
Mentha alopecuroidesGreater Apple Mint An occasional introduction.1970s E17 list
Mentha longifoliaHorse Mint As above.1970s E17 list
Lycopus europaeusGipsywortQuite common in marsh vegetation.1970s E17 list
Stachys palustris

Marsh Woundwort
Rather scarce in marsh vegetation.1970s E17 list
Family: Lamiaceae
Ballota nigra

Black Horehound
Frequent. White-flowered form by River Lea north of Springfield Park.1970s E17 list
Family: Lamiaceae
Lamium purpureum

Red Deadnettle
Very common in Spring.1970s E17 list
Family: Lamiaceae
Lamium album

White Dead Nettle
Very common.1970s E17 list
Family: Lamiaceae
Prunella vulgaris

Found in Waterworks NR open land,.2015
Lamium amplexicauleHenbitScarce on disturbed ground. 1970s E17 list
Galeopsis bifidaHemp Nettle Scarce in grass near Coppermill. 1970s E17 list
Scutellaria galericulataSkullcapScarce by Coppermill Stream.1970s E17 list
Plantago majorGreater Plantain Common.1970s E17 list
Plantago lanceolata

Ribwort Plantain
Common.1970s E17 list
Family: Plantaginaceae
Galium mollugo

White Bedstraw
Very scarce on railway banks.1970s E17 list
Family: Rubiaceae.
Galium erectumUpright Bedstraw A reservoir speciality. Here too?1970s E17 list
Galium verumLady's Bedstraw A single patch known for 15 years.1970s E17 list
Galium aparine

Goosegrass/ cleavers
Common.1970s E17 list
Family: Rubiaceae.
Galium palustreMarsh Bedstraw Interesting marsh relic, scarce in two spots.1970s E17 list
Sambucus nigra

Common on dry banks.1970s E17 list
Family: Adoxaceae.
Dipsacus fullonum

One or two patches of this very spectacular plant in the North Marsh area among Sallows.1970s E17 list
Family: Caprifoliaceae.
Lonicera periclymenum

Found along the railway side, next to the Sustrans in 2014.2014
Family: Caprifoliaceae.
Helianthus annuus SunflowerRare casual on disturbed ground. 1970s E17 list
Helianthus decapetalusNarrow-leaved Sunflower Established in the past, perhaps gone.1970s E17 list
Helianthus rigidusPrairie Sunflower One or two established patches1970s E17 list
Helianthus tuberosusJersualem Artichoke A large patch by River Lea, usually cut back. 1970s E17 list
Rudbeckia speciosaCone FlowerRare casual, garden escape.1970s E17 list
Helenium autumnaleAs above.1970s E17 list
Bidens tripartita

Bur Marigold
Common on muddier ground and in sedge swamp. 1970s E17 list
Family: Asteraceae
Solidago gigantea

Giant Goldenrod
Found beside the ditch of the South Marsh, in 2014.2014
Family: Asteraceae
Galinsoga ciliataShaggy SoldierRare casual on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Galinsoga parvifloraGallant Soldier As above.1970s E17 list
Senecio vulgarisGroundsel Common weed of disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Senecio jacobaea

Common Ragwort
Common in tall grassland.1970s E17 list
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Senecioneae
Senecio viscosusSticky GroundselOccasional on railway ballast.1970s E17 list
Senecio squalidusOxford Ragwort
Very common on bare and stony ground. 1970s E17 list
Senecio inaequidens

Narrow-Leaved Ragwort
This is another new plant. A recent newcomer from South Africa. It is on the invasive plants list. Observed on the 'Waterland' scrub land. in 2014.2014
Family: Asteraceae
Tussilago farfaraColtsfootCommon on grassy verges.1970s E17 list
Pulicarias dysenteric

Yellow Fleabane
Frequent on damper ground.1970s E17 list
Family: Asteraceae
Solidago canadensis

Garden or Canadian Golden-rod
Established here and there. 1970s E17 list
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Astereae
Aster x lanceolatus

Michaelmas Daisy
Well established in grassland with hybrids. 1970s E17 list
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Astereae
Aster x novi-belgii

Michaelmas Daisy
Well established in grassland with hybrids. 1970s E17 list
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Astereae
Aster x salignus

Michaelmas Daisy
Well established in grassland with hybrids. 1970s E17 list
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Astereae
Conyza canadensisCanadian Fleabane A frequent weed of disturbed ground. 1970s E17 list
Bellis perennisDaisy
Quite common in short grass. 1970s E17 list
Family: Asteraceae
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp Agrimony Scarce in marsh vegetation near Coppermill. 1970s E17 list
Agrimonia eupatoria

Found on South Marsh, roughly in the middle!.2015
Agrostemma githago

Found in a bunker on the old golf course.2015
Achillea millefolium

Common in grass. Interesting colour forms. 1970s E17 list
Family: Asteraceae
Achillea ptarmica SneezewortOne large plant only from 1962 to 1980. 1970s E17 list
Tripleurospermum maritimum Scentless Mayweed Common.1970s E17 list
Matricaria recutitaScented Mayweed Quite common with the above.1970s E17 list
Matricaria matricarioidesPineappleweed Very common on all trodden pathways. 1970s E17 list
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (Leucanthemum vulgare)

Ox-eye Daisy
Local on railway banks.1970s E17 list
Chrysanthemum maximumShasta DaisyFormerly occurred as garden escape.1970s E17 list
Tanacetum vulgare

Rather common in tall marsh vegetation. 1970s E17 list
Artemisia vulgaris

Common.1970s E17 list
Artemisia absinthiumWormwoodVery rare.1970s E17 list
Artemisia verlotiorumChinese Wormwood Very local.1970s E17 list
Arctium minus

Lesser Burdock
Occasional in marshy places. 1970s E17 list
Tribe: Cynareae
Arctium lappaGreater Burdock Scarce.1970s E17 list
Cirsium vulgare

Spear Plume Thistle
Fairly common.1970s E17 list
Cirsium arvense

Creeping Thistle
Abundant. A white-flowered form persists. 1970s E17 list
Silybum marianumMilk ThistleCasual in 1972.1970s E17 list
Carduus acanthoidesWelted ThistleUncertain occurrence. Grows by reservoirs. 1970s E17 list
Centaurea nigra

Black Knapweed
Locally common and variable in grass. 1970s E17 list
Centaurea cyanus CornflowerCasual in 1961 (garden escape).1970s E17 list
Lapsana communisNipplewortQuite common in dry localities.1970s E17 list
Hypochaeris radicataCat's Ear
Common in drier and shorter turf. 1970s E17 list
Leontodon autumnalisAutumn Hawkbit Occasionally frequent in places.1970s E17 list
Picris hieracioides

Hawkweed Ox-tongue
Occasional.1970s E17 list
Family: Compositae
Picris echioides

Bristly Ox-tongue
Occasional.1970s E17 list
Family: Asteraceae
Tragopogon minor Goat's BeardFairly frequent.1970s E17 list
Tragopogon pratensis Goat's Beard
A larger form very rare near Lea Bridge. 1970s E17 list
Lactuca serriolaPrickly LettuceVery common in rough pasture.1970s E17 list
Sonchus arvensis

Corn Sowthistle
Occasional in marshy places. 1970s E17 list
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Sonchus asperPrickly SowthistleOccasional on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Sonchus oleraceusCommon SowthistleAs above.1970s E17 list
Hieracium perpropinquumLeafy HawkweedLocal on grassy banks.1970s E17 list
Hieracium pilosellaMouse-ear HawkweedAs above.1970s E17 list
Crepis vesicariaBeaked HawksbeardFairly common.1970s E17 list
Crepis capillarisSmooth HawksbeardFairly common.1970s E17 list
Taraxacum officinaleDandelion
Common. Probably about 8 to 10 different species of Dandelion in this locality. They require very specialist attention.1970s E17 list
Sagittaria sagittifoliaArrowheadNot on Marsh. By Springfield Park only. 1970s E17 list
Alisma plantago-aquaticaWater Plantain
Scarce by Coppermill Stream.1970s E17 list
Alisma lanceolatumNarrow Water PlantainFormerly in bomb crater pond, now extinct. 1970s E17 list
Butomus umbellatusFlowering Rush
Probably now extinct in bomb crater pond. 1970s E17 list
Elodea canadensisCanadian WaterweedQuite common near Coppermill.1970s E17 list
Potamogeton pectinatusFennel Pondweed Locally plentiful in River Lea and Coppermill Stream. 1970s E17 list
Potamogeton crispusFrog's LettuceWith above at Coppermill.1970s E17 list
Asparagus officinalisAsparagusOccasional in South Marsh. Established alien. 1970s E17 list
Juncus inflexusWeeping Willow
Surprisingly uncommon for this area.1970s E17 list
Juncus effususSoft RushAs above. A few clumps only.1970s E17 list
Juncus bufoniusToad RushPlentiful by one railway bridge.1970s E17 list
Juncus articulatusJointed Rush
By bomb crater pond only, perhaps surviving.1970s E17 list
Juncus subnodulosusPerennial Rye Grass
Boggy area of South Marsh.2015
Crassula helmsiiNew Zealand Pigmyweed
Seems to have invaded Walthamstow Marsh.2012
Iris germanicaBearded IrisAn occasional garden escape.1970s E17 list
Iris pseudacorus

Yellow Flag
Plentiful at Coppermill, rare elsewhere.1970s E17 list
Acorus calamusSweet FlagVery notable plant for this area. Local but sometimes plentiful and flowering.1970s E17 list
Endymion hispanicusSpanish BluebellRare casual, garden escape.1970s E17 list
Lemna minorCommon DuckweedCommon or abundant in Coppermill Stream. 1970s E17 list
Lemna gibbaFat DuckweedAs above and growing with it.1970s E17 list
Lemna trisulcaIvy-leaved DuckweedUsually common with the last two.1970s E17 list
Lemna polyrhizaGreat DuckweedScarce in River Lea. Extinct in [sic].1970s E17 list
Sparganium erectumBranched Bur-ReedScarce in Coppermill Stream1970s E17 list
Sparganium emersumUnbranched Bur-ReedScarce in River Lea, never flowering.1970s E17 list
Typha latifoliaReed Mace
Fine stands near Marina.1970s E17 list
Typha angustifoliaLesser Reed MaceDecreasing stand at Coppermill. To preserve.1970s E17 list

Carex The sedge communities of Walthamstow Marshes were made the object of specialised study in 1980 and are now considered our finest evidence of ancient water meadow habitat. Carex vesicaria, spicata, oralis, nigra and pseudocyperus have not been re-found so far, but the most abundant sedges, previously recorded under C. acutiformis, are now known to be a co-dominant mixture of the similar C. acuta and C. x subgracilis. Critical examination in May/June is essential to identify these plants correctly. Our sedge records are now revised as follows:
Scientific nameEnglish nameStatus at Walthamstow
Carex pendula Pendulous Sedge Observed on Sustrans, beside Leyton Marsh. 2015
Carex riparia Great Pond SedgeA little in Coppermill Stream and a patch in a relict ditch in the Triangle.1970s E17 list
Carex acutiformisLesser Pond SedgePlentiful as a waterside plant by Coppermill Stream. Abundant in the reservoirs.1970s E17 list
Carex acutaGraceful SedgeNewly recognised as abundant and very fine in relatively undisturbed pasture throughout.1970s E17 list
Carex x subgracilisHybrid SedgeA cross between C. acuta and acutiformis, largely or totally sterile, intermediate in appearance and distributed throughout the range and habitat of C. acuta, in large quantity. This most remarkable plant is confirmed by Dr Stace of Leicester University (the British authority on wild hybrids) and also by the British Museum. If it can be shown that the entire Walthamstow Marshes population is one clone, (i.e. the vegetatively distributed offspring of a single historical cross-fertilisation) then we shall have living proof of a habitat of very exceptional antiquity.1970s E17 list
Carex hirta Hairy or Hammer Sedge Very common in drier grassland.1970s E17 list
Carex distichaBrown SedgeFound to be very common in both North and South Marsh on moderately damp ground.1970s E17 list
Carex otrubaeFalse Fox Sedge Several tufts only by drainage channel in Triangle. Found at the edge of rabbit mown grass in the Triangle behind the dell in 2015. 1970s E17 list
Phragmites australis

Common Reed
Found on North and south Marshes.2014
Phragmites communisCommon Reed Several fine stands, usually dominant.1970s E17 list
Glyceria maximaGreat Water Grass Abundant as tall pasture.1970s E17 list
Glyceria fluitansSweet Grass Local in ditch.1970s E17 list
Festuca pratensisMeadow Fescue Common. Probably hybridises with next. 1970s E17 list
Festuca arundinaceaTall FescueCommon and variable.1970s E17 list
Festuca rubraRed FescueCommon and very variable.1970s E17 list
Festuca tenuifoliaFine-leaved Sheep's Fescue Scarce on dry railway banks.1970s E17 list
Festuca ovinaSheep's FescueYet to be confirmed from this area. 1970s E17 list
Lolium perennePerennial Rye GrassVery common. Hybridises with next. 1970s E17 list
Lolium multiflorumItalian Rye Grass
Occasional on disturbed ground. 1970s E17 list
Festuca pratensis x Lolium perenne Occasionally occurs and is distinctive. 1970s E17 list
Poa annuaAnnual Meadow Grass Very common especially on bare paths. 1970s E17 list
Poa trivialisRough Meadow GrassCommon.1970s E17 list
Poa pratensis Smooth Meadow GrassCommon and variable.1970s E17 list
Catabrosa aquatica Water Whorl GrassMost interesting species. Sporadic. 1970s E17 list
Dactylis glomerata Cock's Foot
Common.1970s E17 list
Cynosurus cristatusCrested Dog's TailQuite common in dry grassland.1970s E17 list
Zerna erectaUpright Brome Common on railway banks.1970s E17 list
Anisantha sterilisBarren Brome Very common, especially in Spring.1970s E17 list
Bromus mollisSoft BromeCommon on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Bromus mollis var leiostachys  Is a glabrous form of uncertain status. Local.1970s E17 list
Bromus lepidusLesser Soft BromeBy Coppermill Lane; small, interesting colony discovered in 1975. Still there.1970s E17 list
Agropyron repensCouch GrassAbundant.1970s E17 list
Agropyron repens var aristatum Couch Grass Common with the type1970s E17 list
Triticum aestivumBread WheatCasual.1970s E17 list
Hordeum distichonTwo Row BarleyCasual.1970s E17 list
Hordeum vulgareCommon BarleyCasual.1970s E17 list
Hordeum murinumWall BarleyCommon.1970s E17 list
Hordeum secalinumMeadow BarleyLocally plentiful in dry grassland. 1970s E17 list
Trisetum flavescensYellow OatLocal in short dry grassland. 1970s E17 list
Avena fatuaWild OatLocal in short dry grassland. 1970s E17 list
Avena sativaOatCasual.1970s E17 list
Arrhenatherum elatiusFalse OatVery common, including bulbous forms.1970s E17 list
Deschampsia caespitosaTufted Hair GrassAn anciently established native of wet clay meadows, rather scarce on North and South Marshes, but very fine in Triangle.1970s E17 list
Agrostis tenuisFine Bent GrassVery common in dry grassland.1970s E17 list
Agrostis stoloniferaCreeping Bent Grass or FiorinVery common on damper ground.1970s E17 list
Agrostis stolonifera x tenuis Hybrid BentProbably common.1970s E17 list
Agrostis giganteaBlack BentOccasional on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Agrostis castellana and hybrids Highland Bent Probably common. Difficult to name.1970s E17 list
Agrostis caninaBrown Bent Yet to be confirmed from here. 1970s E17 list
Holcus lanatusYorkshire FogCommon.1970s E17 list
Phleum pratenseTimothyCommon.1970s E17 list
Phleum nodosumCat's TailScarce. Merges into the last. 1970s E17 list
Alopecurus geniculatusMarsh FoxtailLocal.1970s E17 list
Alopecurus pratensisMeadow FoxtailFrequent, especially on South Marsh. 1970s E17 list
Alopecurus myosuroidesSlender FoxtailLocal on disturbed ground.1970s E17 list
Secale cerealeRyeCasual.1970s E17 list
Phalaris arundinaceaReed GrassAn abundant marsh and pasture grass. 1970s E17 list
Phalaris canariensisCanary GrassCasual.1970s E17 list
Panicum miliaceumMilletCasual.1970s E17 list
Galium palustreMarsh BedstrawMost interesting marsh relic. Very scarce, in two places only.1970s E17 list
Galium aparineGoosegrassVery common.1970s E17 list

Approximately ten species of moss occur in this area. Seven have been named, including:
Byrum argentium

1970s E17 list
Tortula muralis 1970s E17 list
Grimmia pulvinata1970s E17 list
Ceratodon purpureus 1970s E17 list
Funaria hygrometrica 1970s E17 list

Liverworts and stoneworts appear to be extinct. The lichen Leconora conaizeoides is frequent. Species of Enteromorpha and Blanket Weed Algae are common, and these, like numerous fungi species, require specialist identification.
1970s E17 list
Brian Wurzell.

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